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Kidney Transplants

About 3200 kidney transplants are performed in the India every year and many more could be performed if more kidneys were available. The success rate for kidney transplants is excellent and higher than for other kinds of organ transplants at affordable cost through IMH.

The transplant kidney provides enough kidney function. After a successful transplant, there is no need for dialysis, provided the transplant continues to work well.

Patients who have a successful transplant should feel better and have more energy. There may still be a need to watch your diet to protect the kidney.

Procedure
In most cases the barely functioning existing kidneys are not removed, as this has been shown to increase the rates of surgical morbidities. Therefore the kidney is usually placed in a location different from the original kidney, often in the iliac fossa, so it is often necessary to use a different blood supply:
  • The renal artery of the kidney, previously branching from the abdominal aorta in the donor, is often connected to the external iliac artery in the recipient.
  • The renal vein of the new kidney, previously draining to the inferior vena cava in the donor, is often connected to the external iliac vein in the recipient.
Post Operation

The transplant surgery lasts five hours on average. The donor kidney will be placed in the lower abdomen and its blood vessels connected to arteries and veins in the recipient's body. When this is complete, blood will be allowed to flow through the kidney again. The final step is connecting the ureter from the donor kidney to the bladder. In most cases, the kidney will soon start producing urine.

Depending on its quality, the new kidney usually begins functioning immediately. Living donor kidneys normally require 3–5 days to reach normal functioning levels, while cadaveric donations stretch that interval to 7–15 days. Hospital stay is typically for 4–7 days. If complications arise, additional medications (diuretics) may be administered to help the kidney produce urine.

Immunosuppressant drugs are used to suppress the immune system from rejecting the donor kidney. These medicines must be taken for the rest of the patient's life. Blood levels must be monitored closely and if the patient seems to have declining renal function, a biopsy may be necessary to determine whether this is due to rejection or cyclosporine intoxication.

Post Operation Diet

Grapefruit can decrease the proper metabolism of many drugs, and therefore decrease/or almost cancel out the effect of many critical drugs given after kidney transplants. Therefore grapefruit products and certain other citrus products must be avoided.

Acute rejection occurs in 10–25% of people after transplant during the first sixty days.Rejection does not necessarily mean loss of the organ, but may require additional treatment and medication adjustments.

Complications
Problems after a transplant may include:
  • Transplant rejection (hyperacute, acute or chronic).
  • Infections and sepsis due to the immunosuppressant drugs that are required to decrease risk of rejection.
  • Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (a form of lymphoma due to the immune suppressants).
  • Imbalances in electrolytes including calcium and phosphate which can lead to bone problems amongst other things.
  • Other side effects of medications including gastrointestinal inflammation and ulceration of the stomach and esophagus, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in a male-pattern distribution),hair loss, obesity, acne, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolemia, and others.
The average lifetime for a donated kidney is ten to fifteen years. When a transplant fails, a patient may opt for a second transplant, and may have to return to dialysis for some intermediary time.
Arrangement of donor for transplants:-

We at IMH won’t be able to provide you a living donor for transplantation. Donor should be arranged from your side as the human organs transplant acts are very strict. In the entire process of donation of kidney monetary exchanges are not at all accepted and are illegal.

So, it’s your responsibility to arrange a donor for the transplantation within your relatives preferably with in first blood relation.

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